What is the first law of thermodynamics? Solution: The first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of energy conservation, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed.
- What is the heat of reaction or enthalpy change (ΔH)? Solution: The heat of reaction or enthalpy change (ΔH) is the heat absorbed or released in a chemical reaction at constant pressure.
- What is the difference between an endothermic and exothermic reaction? Solution: An endothermic reaction absorbs heat from its surroundings, resulting in a positive ΔH. An exothermic reaction releases heat to its surroundings, resulting in a negative ΔH.
- What does a positive ΔH value signify? Solution: A positive ΔH value signifies an endothermic process, where heat is absorbed by the system from the surroundings.
- How is calorimetry used in thermochemistry? Solution: Calorimetry is used in thermochemistry to measure the heat absorbed or released during a chemical reaction.
- What is the standard state of a substance? Solution: The standard state of a substance is its pure form at 1 atm of pressure and a specified temperature, typically 25°C or 298 K.
- What is Hess’s Law? Solution: Hess’s Law states that the enthalpy change of a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or in several steps.
- What is the standard enthalpy of formation (ΔH°f)? Solution: The standard enthalpy of formation (ΔH°f) is the heat change that results when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements in their standard states.
- What is the enthalpy of combustion (ΔH°c)? Solution: The enthalpy of combustion (ΔH°c) is the heat released when one mole of a substance is completely burned in oxygen under standard conditions.
- How does bond enthalpy influence the heat of a reaction? Solution: Bond enthalpy influences the heat of a reaction as it represents the energy required to break a bond. The more energy needed to break bonds in reactants and the less energy released when new bonds form in products, the more likely the reaction is endothermic, and vice versa.
- Why is the heat capacity of water important in a calorimeter? Solution: The heat capacity of water is important in a calorimeter because it measures the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of water by one degree Celsius. Knowing this, we can calculate the amount of heat absorbed or released by the chemical reaction.
- What is a state function in thermochemistry? Solution: A state function is a property that only depends on the current state of the system, not on how it got to that state. Enthalpy is an example of a state function.
- How is the heat of reaction calculated using bond enthalpies? Solution: The heat of reaction is calculated using bond enthalpies by summing up the bond enthalpies of all bonds broken (which is positive or heat absorbed) and all bonds formed (which is negative or heat released). The total heat of reaction is the sum of these values.
- What is the role of the surroundings in thermochemistry? Solution: The surroundings serve as the reservoir that absorbs or provides heat in a thermochemical process.
- How is the heat of vaporization related to the heat of condensation? Solution: The heat of vaporization (the energy required to convert a liquid to a gas at its boiling point) is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the heat of condensation (the energy released when a gas condenses to a liquid).
- What is meant by the standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔH°rxn)? Solution: The standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔH°rxn) is the heat change that occurs during a reaction when all reactants and products are in their standard states.
- How are enthalpy changes used in industry? Solution: Enthalpy changes are used in industry to design energy-efficient processes, calculate energy requirements, and estimate the energy produced in various chemical processes.
- What is specific heat capacity? Solution: Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
- How does pressure affect the heat of reaction? Solution: For reactions involving gases, pressure can affect the heat of reaction, as it can alter the volume and thus the work done by or on the system. However, the enthalpy change (ΔH), which is used in thermochemistry, is defined at constant pressure and thus is not directly affected by pressure.
How is the enthalpy change related to the internal energy change of a system? Solution: The enthalpy change of a system is related to the internal energy change, the pressure, and the change in the number of moles of gas in the system by the equation ΔH = ΔU + PΔnRT, where ΔU is the change in internal energy, P is the pressure, Δn is the change in moles of gas, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature.