What is a hydrocarbon? Solution: A hydrocarbon is a compound made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only.
- What are the three main types of hydrocarbons found in petroleum? Solution: The three main types of hydrocarbons found in petroleum are alkanes (paraffins), cycloalkanes (naphthenes), and aromatics.
- Name the simplest hydrocarbon. Solution: The simplest hydrocarbon is methane (CH₄).
- What is the general formula for alkanes? Solution: The general formula for alkanes is CₙH₂ₙ₊₂.
- What is the name of the process used to separate crude oil into different fractions? Solution: The process used to separate crude oil into different fractions is called fractional distillation.
- What is the primary use of the gasoline fraction obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil? Solution: The primary use of the gasoline fraction obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil is as fuel for internal combustion engines (like cars and small trucks).
- How does the number of carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon affect its state at room temperature? Solution: Hydrocarbons with fewer carbon atoms are gases or light liquids at room temperature, while those with a larger number of carbon atoms are heavy liquids or solids.
- What type of reaction do hydrocarbons primarily undergo? Solution: Hydrocarbons primarily undergo combustion reactions, which produce carbon dioxide and water.
- Why are aromatics important components of petroleum? Solution: Aromatics are important components of petroleum because they have high energy content and are used in the production of chemicals and polymers.
- What is the structure of the hydrocarbon ethane? Solution: Ethane is a hydrocarbon with two carbon atoms connected by a single bond, with each carbon atom also bonded to three hydrogen atoms (C₂H₆).
- How is natural gas different from petroleum? Solution: Natural gas is composed primarily of methane, a light hydrocarbon, and is in a gaseous state. Petroleum is a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons and is usually found in a liquid state.
- What is a hydrocarbon reservoir? Solution: A hydrocarbon reservoir is a formation of rock where hydrocarbons (like petroleum or natural gas) have accumulated.
- What is the chemical formula of benzene, an example of an aromatic hydrocarbon? Solution: The chemical formula of benzene is C₆H₆.
- What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons? Solution: Saturated hydrocarbons have only single bonds and are filled to capacity with hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms.
- What type of hydrocarbon is propene? Solution: Propene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon, specifically an alkene, as it contains a carbon-carbon double bond.
- What is the role of a catalyst in the cracking process of long-chain hydrocarbons? Solution: A catalyst in the cracking process reduces the amount of energy needed for the reaction to occur, making the process more efficient.
- What are isomers in the context of hydrocarbons? Solution: Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. For example, pentane, isopentane, and neopentane are isomers with the same molecular formula (C₅H₁₂) but different structures.
- What is the process of converting unsaturated hydrocarbons into saturated hydrocarbons called? Solution: The process of converting unsaturated hydrocarbons into saturated hydrocarbons is called hydrogenation.
- What does the term ‘sweet’ mean when referring to crude oil? Solution: ‘Sweet’ crude oil is oil that contains low amounts of sulfur compounds. It is easier and less costly to refine than ‘sour’ crude, which contains higher levels of sulfur.
How are hydrocarbons in petroleum formed? Solution: Hydrocarbons in petroleum are formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals that were buried under layers of sediment and subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years.