Question 1: What is benzene?
Solution: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, a colorless liquid that is highly flammable. It has a sweet smell and is an important component in many chemical syntheses. Its molecular formula is C₆H₆.
Question 2: What is the structure of benzene?
Solution: Benzene has a hexagonal ring structure with alternating double and single bonds. The six carbon atoms are sp² hybridized, and there is a delocalized π electron cloud above and below the plane of the ring, shared by all six carbon atoms.
Question 3: How is benzene produced industrially?
Solution: Benzene is mainly produced in the chemical industry from petroleum. It is often derived from the catalytic reforming of naphtha, or through steam cracking of light hydrocarbons.
Question 4: What are some uses of benzene?
Solution: Benzene is used as a starting material in the manufacture of a wide variety of chemicals, including plastics, resins, synthetic fibers, rubber, dyes, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. It is also used as a solvent in some chemical and industrial processes.
Question 5: What is the IUPAC name for benzene?
Solution: The IUPAC name for benzene is simply “benzene”. In certain cases when benzene is a substituent, it is referred to as “phenyl”.
Question 6: How does benzene react with bromine?
Solution: Benzene reacts with bromine in an electrophilic substitution reaction to form bromobenzene. This reaction requires a catalyst, typically iron (Fe) or iron(III) bromide (FeBr₃).
Question 7: Why is benzene more stable than expected?
Solution: Benzene is more stable than expected due to delocalization of the π electrons in the ring. This is called aromatic stability or resonance stability. The π electrons are shared by all six carbon atoms, creating a stable, low-energy system.
Question 8: What is the hybridization of carbon atoms in benzene?
Solution: The carbon atoms in benzene are sp² hybridized. This allows for one p-orbital on each carbon atom to be unhybridized, which can overlap with p-orbitals on adjacent carbons to form the delocalized π electron cloud.
Question 9: How does benzene react with nitric acid?
Solution: Benzene reacts with nitric acid in the presence of a sulfuric acid catalyst to form nitrobenzene in an electrophilic substitution reaction. The nitro group (-NO₂) replaces one hydrogen atom on the benzene ring.
Question 10: What is the molar mass of benzene?
Solution: The molar mass of benzene (C₆H₆) is approximately 78.11 g/mol.
Question 11: Is benzene polar or nonpolar?
Solution: Benzene is considered a nonpolar molecule. Although the bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms are slightly polar due to the difference in electronegativity, the symmetry of the benzene ring means these polarities cancel out, making the overall molecule nonpolar.
Question 12: How does benzene react with chlorine?
Solution: Benzene reacts with chlorine in an electrophilic substitution reaction to form chlorobenzene. This reaction requires a catalyst, typically iron (Fe) or iron(III) chloride (FeCl₃).
Question 13: What is the density of benzene?
Solution: The density of benzene at room temperature is about 0.876 g/mL.
Question 14: What is the difference between benzene and cyclohexane?
Solution: Benzene (C₆H₆) and cyclohexane (C₆H₁₂) both have six carbon atoms arranged in a ring. However, benzene has alternating double and single bonds and is aromatic, whereas cyclohexane has only single bonds and is an aliphatic compound. This difference leads to distinct chemical properties; benzene is very stable and does not readily react, while cyclohexane is more reactive.
Question 15: What are the potential health effects of benzene exposure?
Solution: Exposure to high levels of benzene can lead to benzene poisoning, which can cause symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness. Long-term exposure can lead to harmful effects on the bone marrow and can result in a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and can affect the immune system, increasing the chance of infection.
Question 16: How does benzene react with sulfuric acid?
Solution: Benzene itself doesn’t react with sulfuric acid. However, sulfuric acid is often used as a catalyst or dehydrating agent in reactions involving benzene, such as the nitration of benzene, where sulfuric acid is used to generate the nitronium ion (NO₂⁺) from nitric acid.
Question 17: What is the boiling point of benzene?
Solution: The boiling point of benzene is approximately 80.1°C (176.2°F) at standard atmospheric pressure.
Question 18: How can you distinguish between benzene and hexane using bromine water?
Solution: Benzene and hexane can be distinguished using bromine water due to their different reactivity. Hexane will readily react with bromine water in a light-induced addition reaction, decolorizing the solution. Benzene, however, will not react with bromine water without a catalyst due to its stability, so the solution remains colored.
Question 19: What is the geometry of benzene?
Solution: Benzene has a planar, hexagonal geometry. Each carbon atom in the ring is bonded to two other carbons and one hydrogen, with the three bonds at 120° angles to each other due to the sp² hybridization of the carbon atoms.
Question 20: What type of isomerism is shown by benzene derivatives?
Solution: Derivatives of benzene can show position isomerism. This happens when the substituent on the benzene ring changes position (e.g., from ortho- to meta- or para-positions). For example, nitrobenzene can have the nitro group (-NO₂) at different positions on the ring, leading to different isomers.