Question 1: What are alkane derivatives?
Solution: Alkane derivatives, also known as substituted alkanes or alkylated compounds, are organic compounds that are derived from alkanes by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with other functional groups.
Question 2: What is the general formula of alkanes?
Solution: The general formula for alkanes is CnH₂n+2.
Question 3: What is a halogenoalkane?
Solution: A halogenoalkane is a type of alkane derivative where one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced with halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine).
Question 4: How can alkanes be converted to alcohols?
Solution: Alkanes can be converted to alcohols via a two-step process involving halogenation and substitution. First, a hydrogen atom of the alkane is replaced by a halogen (like chlorine or bromine) in the presence of UV light. Then, the halogen atom is replaced by an -OH group in a nucleophilic substitution reaction with a hydroxide ion.
Question 5: How are esters formed from alkane derivatives?
Solution: Esters are formed when an alcohol (which can be derived from an alkane) reacts with a carboxylic acid in a process known as esterification. The alcohol’s -OH group combines with the -OH group of the carboxylic acid to release water, and the remaining parts of the molecules combine to form the ester.
Question 6: What is a primary alkyl halide?
Solution: A primary alkyl halide is an alkane derivative in which the halogen atom is bonded to a primary carbon atom – a carbon atom that is connected to only one other carbon atom in the molecule.
Question 7: How does the boiling point of alkane derivatives compare to that of alkanes?
Solution: The boiling points of alkane derivatives depend on the nature and size of the substituent groups, but generally, alkane derivatives have higher boiling points than alkanes. This is because the functional groups often introduce polarity into the molecule, leading to stronger intermolecular forces.
Question 8: How is an ether formed from alkane derivatives?
Solution: An ether can be formed from alkane derivatives through the dehydration of alcohols, which can be derived from alkanes. In this reaction, two alcohol molecules lose water to form an ether.
Question 9: What is an amines?
Solution: Amines are alkane derivatives in which one or more hydrogen atoms of an alkane are replaced by an amino group (-NH₂).
Question 10: What is the functional group in aldehydes?
Solution: The functional group in aldehydes is a carbonyl group (-C=O) with a hydrogen atom attached to it (-CHO).
Question 11: How is the naming of alkane derivatives done in IUPAC nomenclature?
Solution: In IUPAC nomenclature, alkane derivatives are named by identifying the parent alkane chain and then the functional group replacing one or more of the hydrogens. The position of the functional group is indicated by a number.
Question 12: What is the difference between a primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohol?
Solution: In a primary alcohol, the carbon atom bonded to the OH (hydroxyl) group is only bonded to one other carbon atom. In a secondary alcohol, the carbon atom bonded to the OH group is bonded to two other carbon atoms. In a tertiary alcohol, the carbon atom bonded to the OH group is bonded to three other carbon atoms.
Question 13: What is a carboxylic acid?
Solution: Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxyl functional group (-COOH). The name carboxyl comes from the fact that a carbonyl group (C=O) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) are bonded together in these compounds.
Question 14: What is the functional group in a ketone?
Solution: The functional group in a ketone is a carbonyl group (-C=O) which is not at the end of the chain. It has two other carbon atoms attached to it.
Question 15: How can alkane derivatives be converted to alkynes?
Solution: Alkane derivatives can be converted to alkynes by a multi-step process involving halogenation, substitution to form an alkene, and dehydrohalogenation to form an alkyne.
Question 16: What is an alkene?
Solution: An alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond. They are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Question 17: How are alkane derivatives used in the pharmaceutical industry?
Solution: Alkane derivatives play a crucial role in the pharmaceutical industry. Many drugs contain functional groups that are alkane derivatives, such as alcohols, amines, ethers, esters, and others.
Question 18: What are ethers?
Solution: Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group, an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Question 19: How does the presence of a functional group affect the chemical behavior of alkane derivatives?
Solution: The presence of a functional group greatly affects the chemical behavior of alkane derivatives. Functional groups are often the site of chemical reactivity in a molecule, and different functional groups confer different reactivity patterns. For example, alcohols (-OH) are generally more reactive than alkanes, while carboxylic acids (-COOH) can participate in reactions like acid-base reactions.
Question 20: What is the role of alkane derivatives in polymers?
Solution: Alkane derivatives play a major role in the creation of polymers. Many common types of plastic, for example, are made from polymers of alkene derivatives. Alkane derivatives can also be used to modify the properties of polymers, such as their flexibility, hardness, and resistance to chemical attack.