# Electric power formula

Electric power formula

Electric power represents the rate at which electrical energy is transferred or converted in an electric circuit. Understanding the formula for electric power is essential for those involved in electrical engineering, physics, or anyone dealing with electrical appliances.

Definition

The electric power is defined as the product of voltage and current in a circuit, and it gives the rate of energy transfer. The mathematical expression for power is given by:

$P = V \times I$

where $$P$$ is the power in watts (W), $$V$$ is the voltage in volts (V), and $$I$$ is the current in amperes (A).

Relation with Resistance

Combining Ohm’s law with the power formula, we can derive additional expressions for power based on resistance and either voltage or current:

1. Using voltage and resistance: $$P = \frac{{V^2}}{{R}}$$
2. Using current and resistance: $$P = I^2 \times R$$

Units

The unit of electric power is the Watt (W), named after James Watt. It is equivalent to one Joule per second.

AC and DC Power

Electric power can be classified into two types, depending on the nature of the current:

1. Direct Current (DC) Power: In a DC circuit, the power is simply the product of voltage and current, as described above.
2. Alternating Current (AC) Power: In an AC circuit, the power can be complex, involving both real and reactive components. The real power (active power) is what actually performs work, while the reactive power does not perform work but is necessary to maintain the voltage levels in the system.

Applications

The electric power formula is fundamental in various fields:

1. Home Appliances: Understanding the power rating of devices like heaters, refrigerators, and fans helps in calculating energy consumption and efficiency.
2. Industry: The power calculation is vital for the design and optimization of industrial machinery and electrical systems.
3. Power Generation and Distribution: The formula is used in calculating the generation and distribution of electric power in power plants and across electrical grids.
4. Electric Vehicles: Power calculation plays a crucial role in the design and efficiency assessment of electric vehicles.

Efficiency

The efficiency of a device is given by the ratio of the useful output power to the input power, often expressed as a percentage:

$\text{{Efficiency}} = \frac{{\text{{Output Power}}}}{{\text{{Input Power}}}} \times 100\%$

Conclusion

The electric power formula is a fundamental concept in electrical engineering and physics, with wide-reaching applications in various fields. Understanding this formula is essential for designing, optimizing, and analyzing electrical systems, appliances, and networks. It enables professionals to make informed decisions that lead to energy savings, cost reductions, and sustainable development.

PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

1. Problem: If a device uses 10 V and has a current of 2 A, what is the power?
Solution: $$P = 10 \times 2 = 20 \, \text{W}$$

2. Problem: Calculate the power consumed by a 5-ohm resistor with a current of 3 A.
Solution: $$P = 3^2 \times 5 = 45 \, \text{W}$$

3. Problem: Determine the power consumption if a device operates at 240 V and 5 A.
Solution: $$P = 240 \times 5 = 1200 \, \text{W}$$

4. Problem: Find the power consumed by a 10-ohm resistor with a voltage of 20 V across it.
Solution: $$P = \frac{{20^2}}{{10}} = 40 \, \text{W}$$

5. Problem: A motor operating at 15 A with a resistance of 4 ohms. Find the power.
Solution: $$P = 15^2 \times 4 = 900 \, \text{W}$$

6. Problem: Calculate the power of a bulb operating at 12 V and 0.5 A.
Solution: $$P = 12 \times 0.5 = 6 \, \text{W}$$

7. Problem: Determine the power of a 6-ohm resistor with 4 A current.
Solution: $$P = 4^2 \times 6 = 96 \, \text{W}$$

8. Problem: A device operates at 220 V and 2 A. What is the power?
Solution: $$P = 220 \times 2 = 440 \, \text{W}$$

9. Problem: Find the power consumed by a 3-ohm resistor with a voltage of 9 V.
Solution: $$P = \frac{{9^2}}{{3}} = 27 \, \text{W}$$

10. Problem: Calculate the power of a device operating at 15 V and 1.5 A.
Solution: $$P = 15 \times 1.5 = 22.5 \, \text{W}$$

11. Problem: Determine the power consumed by a 7-ohm resistor with 2 A current.
Solution: $$P = 2^2 \times 7 = 28 \, \text{W}$$

12. Problem: A heater operates at 110 V and 10 A. What is the power?
Solution: $$P = 110 \times 10 = 1100 \, \text{W}$$

13. Problem: Find the power of a 5-ohm resistor with a voltage of 25 V across it.
Solution: $$P = \frac{{25^2}}{{5}} = 125 \, \text{W}$$

14. Problem: A fan operating at 20 A with a resistance of 5 ohms. Find the power.
Solution: $$P = 20^2 \times 5 = 2000 \, \text{W}$$

15. Problem: Calculate the power of a device operating at 240 V and 0.75 A.
Solution: $$P = 240 \times 0.75 = 180 \, \text{W}$$

16. Problem: Determine the power of an 8-ohm resistor with 3 A current.
Solution: $$P = 3^2 \times 8 = 72 \, \text{W}$$

17. Problem: A device operates at 120 V and 4 A. What is the power?
Solution: $$P = 120 \times 4 = 480 \, \text{W}$$

18. Problem: Find the power consumed by a 4-ohm resistor with a voltage of 16 V.
Solution: $$P = \frac{{16^2}}{{4}} = 64 \, \text{W}$$

19. Problem: Calculate the power of a device operating at 18 V and 2.5 A.
Solution: $$P = 18 \times 2.5 = 45 \, \text{W}$$

20. Problem: Determine the power consumed by a 9-ohm resistor with 3 A current.
Solution: $$P = 3^2 \times 9 = 81 \, \text{W}$$

These problems cover various scenarios where the electric power formula is used, considering the relationships between voltage, current, resistance, and power. It helps to reinforce the understanding of how these quantities are interrelated in an electrical circuit.