Chemical bonds problems and solutions

  1. What type of bond will form between a magnesium atom and an oxygen atom? Solution: An ionic bond will form between a magnesium atom and an oxygen atom because one is a metal (magnesium) and the other is a nonmetal (oxygen).

  2. Which type of bond exists in a molecule of CH₄? Solution: A covalent bond exists in a molecule of CH₄ because both carbon and hydrogen are nonmetals.
  3. What type of bond holds the hydrogen and oxygen atoms together in a water molecule? Solution: A polar covalent bond holds the hydrogen and oxygen atoms together in a water molecule because of the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms.
  4. What type of bond will form between two bromine atoms? Solution: A nonpolar covalent bond will form between two bromine atoms because they have the same electronegativity.
  5. How many valence electrons are involved in a triple bond? Solution: Six valence electrons are involved in a triple bond.
  6. How many pairs of electrons are shared in a single covalent bond? Solution: One pair of electrons (two electrons) is shared in a single covalent bond.
  7. What is the difference between a polar covalent bond and a nonpolar covalent bond? Solution: A polar covalent bond is formed when two different nonmetals unequally share electrons due to a difference in electronegativity. A nonpolar covalent bond is formed when two identical nonmetals equally share electrons.
  8. What kind of bond is present in NaCl? Solution: An ionic bond is present in NaCl. Sodium (Na), a metal, loses an electron to become a cation, while chlorine (Cl), a nonmetal, gains an electron to become an anion.
  9. What type of intermolecular forces are present between molecules of CO₂? Solution: London dispersion forces are present between molecules of CO₂ because the molecule is nonpolar.
  10. What is a coordinate covalent bond? Solution: A coordinate covalent bond is a type of covalent bond where one atom provides both of the electrons being shared.
  11. What is the main type of bonding in nitrogen gas (N₂)? Solution: The main type of bonding in nitrogen gas (N₂) is a triple covalent bond.
  12. What type of bond forms when phosphorus and chlorine combine to form PCl₃? Solution: Covalent bonds form when phosphorus and chlorine combine to form PCl₃.
  13. In the Lewis structure of the nitrate ion (NO₃⁻), how many total bonds does the nitrogen atom form? Solution: In the Lewis structure of the nitrate ion, the nitrogen atom forms four total bonds (one double bond with one oxygen atom and single bonds with the other two oxygen atoms).
  14. What type of bond is formed in a molecule of oxygen (O₂)? Solution: A double covalent bond is formed in a molecule of oxygen.
  15. How many sigma and pi bonds are there in a molecule of ethene (C₂H₄)? Solution: In a molecule of ethene, there are five sigma bonds and one pi bond.
  16. What type of intermolecular force exists between water molecules? Solution: Hydrogen bonding, a type of dipole-dipole interaction, exists between water molecules.
  17. How many bonding and antibonding electrons are in O₂? Solution: In an oxygen molecule (O₂), there are ten bonding electrons and six antibonding electrons.
  18. What type of bond would be expected between sulfur (S) and fluorine (F)? Solution: A polar covalent bond would be expected between sulfur and fluorine because they are both nonmetals with different electronegativities.
  19. What is a metallic bond? Solution: A metallic bond is the force of attraction between valence electrons and the metal ions. It is the sharing of many detached electrons between many positive ions, where the electrons act as a “glue” giving the substance a definite structure.
  20. What is the difference between a sigma bond and a pi bond? Solution: A sigma bond is a type of covalent bond that is formed by the head-on overlapping of atomic orbitals. A pi bond is a type of covalent bond that is formed by the side-by-side overlap of atomic orbitals.

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