Biomolecules problems and solutions

Question 1: What are biomolecules?

Solution: Biomolecules are organic molecules which are involved in the maintenance and metabolic processes of living organisms. They include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Question 2: What is the primary function of carbohydrates in the body?

Solution: The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy. They are easily converted to glucose, which the body uses as its primary source of energy.

Question 3: What is a lipid and how does it function in the body?

Solution: Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and others. They function as a source of energy, as an important part of the cell membrane, and as signaling molecules.

Question 4: What is a protein and how does it function in the body?

Solution: Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.

Question 5: What are nucleic acids, and what are their main types?

Solution: Nucleic acids are biopolymers that store genetic information in the body. The two main types are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).

Question 6: What is the basic building block of proteins?

Solution: The basic building block of proteins is an amino acid.

Question 7: What is the function of DNA in a cell?

Solution: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores and transfers genetic information in cells. It determines the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins and its specific life functions.

Question 8: What is the function of RNA in a cell?

Solution: RNA (ribonucleic acid) performs various roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. It is involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of genetic information.

Question 9: What is the process of protein synthesis?

Solution: Protein synthesis is a two-step process that includes transcription and translation. During transcription, DNA is used to create a complementary RNA strand. During translation, this RNA strand is used as a template to assemble amino acids into a polypeptide.

Question 10: What is the chemical structure of glucose?

Solution: Glucose is a monosaccharide with the chemical formula C₆H₁₂O₆. Its structure consists of a six-member ring made up of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

Question 11: How are disaccharides formed?

Solution: Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration reaction which involves the elimination of a water molecule. The bond formed between the two monosaccharides is known as a glycosidic bond.

Question 12: What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

Solution: Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully “saturated” with hydrogen atoms. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain.

Question 13: What is a peptide bond?

Solution: A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H₂O). This is a dehydration synthesis reaction.

Question 14: What is the function of enzymes in the body?

Solution: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They lower the activation energy required for a reaction to occur and increase the rate of the reaction.

Question 15: What is the difference between DNA and RNA?

Solution: DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, is double-stranded, and uses the bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. RNA, on the other hand, contains the sugar ribose, is usually single-stranded, and uses the bases adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine.

Question 16: How does DNA replication occur?

Solution: DNA replication occurs in a semi-conservative manner, where each strand in the DNA molecule serves as a template for the production of a complementary strand. The process involves unwinding of the DNA double helix, synthesis of new strands by DNA polymerase, and reformation of the double helix.

Question 17: What are polysaccharides, and name two examples?

Solution: Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Two examples are starch and cellulose.

Question 18: What are the four levels of protein structure?

Solution: The four levels of protein structure are the primary structure (sequence of amino acids), secondary structure (alpha-helices and beta-sheets formed by hydrogen bonding), tertiary structure (3D shape formed by interactions between side chains), and quaternary structure (assembly of multiple protein molecules).

Question 19: What is the difference between anabolic and catabolic reactions in biochemistry?

Solution: Anabolic reactions are those that involve the building up of complex molecules from simpler ones, and they usually require energy. Catabolic reactions, on the other hand, involve the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, releasing energy in the process.

Question 20: What is ATP, and what role does it play in the cell?

Solution: ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the primary energy carrier in all living organisms. It captures chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes.

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