What is an acid-base solution?
An acid-base solution is a solution that contains either an acid or a base. The pH of the solution determines whether it is acidic (pH<7), basic (pH>7), or neutral (pH=7).
- How is the strength of an acid or base determined?
The strength of an acid or a base is determined by its degree of ionization in water. Strong acids and bases ionize completely, while weak acids and bases only partially ionize.
- What is the pH scale?
The pH scale is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It ranges from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic), with 7 being neutral.
- What is the pOH of a solution?
The pOH of a solution is a measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH⁻). It can be calculated by taking the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration.
- How are pH and pOH related?
pH and pOH are related by the formula: pH + pOH = 14 at 25°C. This comes from the ion product of water, Kw = [H⁺] x [OH⁻] = 1.0 x 10⁻¹⁴ at 25°C.
- What are conjugate acids and bases?
A conjugate acid is the species created when a base accepts a proton (H⁺), while a conjugate base is the species that remains after an acid has donated a proton.
- What is a neutralization reaction?
A neutralization reaction is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react to form a salt and water.
- What is the acid dissociation constant (Ka)?
The acid dissociation constant (Ka) is the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid. It gives a measure of the strength of the acid, with stronger acids having larger Ka values.
- What is the base dissociation constant (Kb)?
The base dissociation constant (Kb) is the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a base. It gives a measure of the strength of the base, with stronger bases having larger Kb values.
- How is the concentration of H⁺ ions related to the pH of a solution?
The concentration of H⁺ ions in a solution is related to the pH by the formula: pH = -log[H⁺]. Therefore, a solution with a high concentration of H⁺ ions has a low pH (acidic), and a solution with a low concentration of H⁺ ions has a high pH (basic).
- What are amphoteric substances?
Amphoteric substances are substances that can act as both acids and bases. Water is an example of an amphoteric substance.
- What are polyprotic acids?
Polyprotic acids are acids that can donate more than one proton per molecule. Examples include sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄).
- What is titration?
Titration is an experimental procedure used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base by neutralizing it with a solution of known concentration.
- What is the equivalence point in a titration?
The equivalence point in a titration is the point at which the amount of titrant added is just enough to completely neutralize the analyte solution.
- What is an indicator?
An indicator is a substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point of a chemical reaction. In acid-base titrations, indicators are used to determine when all of the acid or base has been neutralized.
- What is a standard solution?
A standard solution is a solution whose concentration is known accurately. It is often used as the titrant in a titration.
- What is a hydronium ion?
A hydronium ion (H₃O⁺) is the ion that forms from water accepting a proton (H⁺). It is often used to represent the H⁺ ion in aqueous solution.
- What are the Arrhenius definitions of acids and bases?
According to Arrhenius, acids are substances that increase the concentration of H⁺ ions when dissolved in water, and bases are substances that increase the concentration of OH⁻ ions when dissolved in water.
- What are the Bronsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases?
According to Bronsted-Lowry, acids are proton (H⁺ ion) donors, and bases are proton acceptors.
- What are the Lewis definitions of acids and bases?
According to Lewis, acids are electron pair acceptors, and bases are electron pair donors.