# Acid-base solution concept questions and answers

1. What is an acid-base solution?

An acid-base solution is a solution that contains either an acid or a base. The pH of the solution determines whether it is acidic (pH<7), basic (pH>7), or neutral (pH=7).

2. How is the strength of an acid or base determined?

The strength of an acid or a base is determined by its degree of ionization in water. Strong acids and bases ionize completely, while weak acids and bases only partially ionize.

3. What is the pH scale?

The pH scale is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It ranges from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic), with 7 being neutral.

4. What is the pOH of a solution?

The pOH of a solution is a measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH⁻). It can be calculated by taking the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration.

5. How are pH and pOH related?

pH and pOH are related by the formula: pH + pOH = 14 at 25°C. This comes from the ion product of water, Kw = [H⁺] x [OH⁻] = 1.0 x 10⁻¹⁴ at 25°C.

6. What are conjugate acids and bases?

A conjugate acid is the species created when a base accepts a proton (H⁺), while a conjugate base is the species that remains after an acid has donated a proton.

7. What is a neutralization reaction?

A neutralization reaction is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react to form a salt and water.

8. What is the acid dissociation constant (Ka)?

The acid dissociation constant (Ka) is the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid. It gives a measure of the strength of the acid, with stronger acids having larger Ka values.

9. What is the base dissociation constant (Kb)?

The base dissociation constant (Kb) is the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a base. It gives a measure of the strength of the base, with stronger bases having larger Kb values.

10. How is the concentration of H⁺ ions related to the pH of a solution?

The concentration of H⁺ ions in a solution is related to the pH by the formula: pH = -log[H⁺]. Therefore, a solution with a high concentration of H⁺ ions has a low pH (acidic), and a solution with a low concentration of H⁺ ions has a high pH (basic).

1. What are amphoteric substances?

Amphoteric substances are substances that can act as both acids and bases. Water is an example of an amphoteric substance.

1. What are polyprotic acids?

Polyprotic acids are acids that can donate more than one proton per molecule. Examples include sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄).

1. What is titration?

Titration is an experimental procedure used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base by neutralizing it with a solution of known concentration.

1. What is the equivalence point in a titration?

The equivalence point in a titration is the point at which the amount of titrant added is just enough to completely neutralize the analyte solution.

1. What is an indicator?

An indicator is a substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point of a chemical reaction. In acid-base titrations, indicators are used to determine when all of the acid or base has been neutralized.

1. What is a standard solution?

A standard solution is a solution whose concentration is known accurately. It is often used as the titrant in a titration.

1. What is a hydronium ion?

A hydronium ion (H₃O⁺) is the ion that forms from water accepting a proton (H⁺). It is often used to represent the H⁺ ion in aqueous solution.

1. What are the Arrhenius definitions of acids and bases?

According to Arrhenius, acids are substances that increase the concentration of H⁺ ions when dissolved in water, and bases are substances that increase the concentration of OH⁻ ions when dissolved in water.

1. What are the Bronsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases?

According to Bronsted-Lowry, acids are proton (H⁺ ion) donors, and bases are proton acceptors.

1. What are the Lewis definitions of acids and bases?

According to Lewis, acids are electron pair acceptors, and bases are electron pair donors.

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